´╗┐Gram-negative bacterial cells such as for example contain a relatively rigid outer membrane, and cross-linked peptidoglycan in their periplasm, giving them the rigidity and stability to survive independently in harsh environments. subsequently reconstituted into vesicles. Here we statement the coassembly of human membrane vesicles with dendrimersomes. The resulting giant hybrid vesicles containing human cell membranes, their components, and Janus dendrimers are stable for at least 1 y. To demonstrate the utility of cell-like hybrid vesicles, hybrids from dendrimersomes and bacterial membrane vesicles containing YadA, a bacterial adhesin protein, were prepared. The latter cell-like hybrids were recognized by human cells, allowing for adhesion and entry of the hybrid bacterial vesicles into human cells in vitro. The membranes of human cells are mechanically fragile and chemically unstable in vitro (1). Therefore, the investigation of the functions of biological membranes outside the in vivo natural cellular environment represents a significant challenge. Liposomes assembled…

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