The prevalence of asymptomatic HH in this study was low (14.9%). were the most frequently reported HH related symptoms, but BMI was not (X2=2.126; p=0.345). In the multivariate regression model, the use of PPI (proton-pump inhibitor) medication (adjusted OR [AOR]=0.237; 95% CI=0.074-0.760; p=0.023) was found to be higher in those with HH. Vomiting (AOR=1.722; 95% CI=1.025-2.890; p=0.040) and nausea (AOR=1.698; 95% CI=1.012-2.849; p=0.045) were the most frequently reported symptoms related to HH. Conclusion Asymptomatic HH among obese patients is not widely prevalent in our region. The use of PPI medications was found to decrease the symptoms associated with HH, such as vomiting and nausea. However, there was no evidence linking BMI to the development of HH. strong class=”kwd-title” Keywords: hiatal hernia, obese patient, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, bmi Introduction Obesity can affect ones health in many ways, including the incidence of hiatal hernia (HH), that is, dilation or weakness of the diaphragmatic opening through which the esophagus passes. This dilation can Rabbit polyclonal to Caspase 7 cause a part or the entirety of the stomach to migrate into the thoracic cavity . A prospective study conducted in the University of Alabama at Birmingham Hospital, Birmingham, AL, USA, included 1,224 participants who underwent upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and found that 65% of patients with an increased waist-to-hip ratio presented with esophagitis or HH . Patients with HH or esophagitis can present with few or no symptoms. It can be found incidentally while investigating digestive disorders using upper GI tract endoscopy . According to Hills classification, HH is usually classified based on endoscopic findings into the following: sliding HH, which is the most common type (95% of 5-R-Rivaroxaban patients); para-esophageal HH, which is seen when the lower esophageal sphincter remains preserved while the fundus of the stomach herniates through the diaphragm; mixed type; and the fourth type, which involves migration of the stomach or bowel. The common symptoms of this disease include dysphagia, heartburn, regurgitation, nausea/vomiting, chest pain, and abdominal pain [4,5]. There are multiple risk factors associated with HHs, including age, sex, race, body mass index (BMI), or any increase in intra-abdominal pressure . HHs can be detected with multiple techniques. However, only two techniques can accurately diagnose HHs: barium swallow and upper endoscopy . Considering the variations in the incidence and frequency of 5-R-Rivaroxaban HH among obese patients and the correlation with asymptomatic HH between studies and considering that the prevalence of asymptomatic HH in the Al-Qassim province in Saudi Arabia has not yet been established, we conducted a retrospective study on this topic. We then compared the results with those of other studies conducted in and outside Saudi Arabia to fully understand its prevalence. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic HH in obese patients during routine upper GI endoscopy preoperative assessment and to assess the relationship between BMI and the presence of HH. This article was previously posted to the Research Square preprint server on October 23, 2020 . Materials and methods An observational retrospective cohort study was conducted at King 5-R-Rivaroxaban Fahad Specialist Hospital, 5-R-Rivaroxaban Buraydah, Qassim, Saudi Arabia. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the National Bioethics Committee in the Qassim province. The data were extracted from the medical records and ambulatory records of all obese patients (BMI 30) who underwent preoperative upper GI endoscopy assessment between January 2017 and December 2019. Demographic, clinical, and endoscopic data were collected from electronic health records. Qualitative data were expressed as frequencies and percentages, and quantitative data were expressed 5-R-Rivaroxaban as the mean and standard deviation. The relationship between HH and the basic demographic characteristics and associated diseases of obese patients was established using a chi-square test. A.
The prevalence of asymptomatic HH in this study was low (14