No morphological alterations were observed in the NaAsO2 exposed cells. its adverse health impacts on humans have been a worldwide health issue in the recent decades (Rahman et al., 2009). It is estimated that nearly 200 million people throughout the world are at risk of toxic exposure to arsenic, nowadays (Hunt et al., 2014). Groundwater used for drinking contaminated by arsenic was first recognized in the 1960s in China and has been a health threat since then. According to a recent report from test. The differences of the effects among NaAsO2 concentrations (0, 0.05 and 0.1 mol/L) were analyzed by one-way analysis of variation (ANOVA) followed by Student-Newman-Keuls test or Dunnetts T3 test depending on whether the variances of the data Tiotropium Bromide are equal or not. Statistical evaluation of data was performed by the software of SPSS (version 22.0, Chicago, IL). A value of 0.05 was considered as significant. Results Repeated Low-Dose NaAsO2 Exposure Leaded to HaCat Cell Proliferation HaCat cells were repeatedly exposed to NaAsO2 at different concentrations (0, 0.05 and 0.1 mol/L) for 15 weeks. No morphological alterations were observed in the NaAsO2 exposed cells. The cells looked the same in both the size and shape with those before chronic culture ( Figure 1A ). The NaAsO2 exposed cells showed an increased proliferative capability while MK2206, a highly selective inhibitor of Akt, significantly decreased the proliferation of NaAsO2 exposed cells ( Figure 1B ). At the same time, MMP 9, one of the matrix metalloproteinases which is abnormally abundant in the microenvironment during carcinogenesis, was found significantly increased in the NaAsO2 exposed cells. Treatment of MK2206 attenuated the level of MMP9 which indicated the role of Akt in regulating MMP9 activation ( Figure 1C ). Open in a separate window Figure 1 Repeated low-dose NaAsO2 exposure resulted in increased proliferative capability and MMP9 expression in HaCat cell. Cells were continuously exposed to NaAsO2 for 15 weeks at the concentration of 0, 0.05, and 0.1 mol/L. A total of three sets of cells were established. (A) Cell photos taken before long-term culture and after culture for 15 weeks. No Tiotropium Bromide morphological alterations were observed in the NaAsO2 exposed cells. (B) For each set of the cell, cell proliferation was Rabbit Polyclonal to PDGFRb (phospho-Tyr771) analyzed by CellTiter 96 assay. Similar results were obtained from the three sets of cells. A representative figure was presented. The NaAsO2 exposed cells showed increased proliferative capability, which could Tiotropium Bromide be attenuated by MK2206 (10 mol/L, 24 h). (C) The expression of MMP9 was analyzed by Western Blot assay. Long-term NaAsO2 exposure resulted in increased expressions of MMP9 in the HaCat cells, which could be attenuated by the treatment of MK2206 (10 mol/L, 24 h). Significant difference Tiotropium Bromide was defined as less than 0.05. a, vs. the corresponding 0 M group; b, vs. the corresponding 0.05 M group; c, vs. the MK2206(-) group of the same NaAsO2 concentration. The wound-healing assay revealed that NaAsO2 exposure increased the wound closure Tiotropium Bromide speed after a 24-h incubation. The higher the NaAsO2 concentration, the higher the wound recovery speed ( Figure 2A , line 3; Figure 2B ). However, NaAsO2 induced increased wound closure was inhibited by the treatment of MK2206 ( Figure 2A , line 4; Figure 2B ). At the time point of 48 h, all the wounds of cells without MK2206 treatment were closed since the culture time was long enough for wound healing ( Figure 2A , line 5). Although wound closure was still inhibited by MK2206, NaAsO2 exposed cells showed higher wound-healing capability than that of the control cells ( Figure 2B ). Cells of the 0.1mol/L group showed the highest wound-healing capability ( Figure 2A , line 6). These results indicated that repeated low-dose NaAsO2 exposure promoted the proliferation of HaCat cell and that Akt, a central player in the regulation of various physiological functions including cell cycle, was involved in the proliferation induced by low-dose NaAsO2 exposure. Open in a separate window Figure 2 Repeated low-dose NaAsO2 exposure increased the wound closure rate of HaCat cells. Cells were seeded into 6-well plates. The cell monolayers were.
No morphological alterations were observed in the NaAsO2 exposed cells