Palbociclib is an oral, selective inhibitor of CDK 4/6 that restores Rb function and promotes cell cycle arrest. Methods In this phase II trial, patients with metastatic platinum-refractory UC molecularly selected for p16 loss and intact Rb by tumour immunohistochemistry received palbociclib 125?mg p.o. two patients (17%) achieved PFS4 with insufficient activity to advance to stage 2. No responses were seen. Median PFS was 1.9 months (95% CI 1.8C3.7 months) and median overall survival was 6.3 months (95% CI 2.2C12.6 months). Fifty-eight percent of patients had grade 3 hematologic toxicity. There were no alterations found and no correlation of Rb pathway alterations with clinical outcome. Conclusions Palbociclib did not demonstrate meaningful activity in selected patients with platinum-refractory metastatic UC. Further development of palbociclib should only be considered with improved integral biomarker selection or in rational combination with other therapies. or amplifications.1 Additionally, the VEGF2-R antagonist ramucirumab in combination with docetaxel improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared with docetaxel alone in unselected patients with platinum-refractory UC.2 The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) has expanded our knowledge of the molecular landscape of urothelial carcinoma and has demonstrated the frequent alteration of retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway genes in UC. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (leads to upregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and 6 activity, thus phosphorylating and inactivating the tumour suppressor Rb, leading to cell cycle progression and tumour growth. Other Rb pathway alterations include loss of function mutations in (p21) in 9% and amplification of in 12% of tumours. Together, these molecular alterations suggest that therapeutic agents targeted to the Rb pathway may have activity in the treatment of metastatic UC. Palbociclib is an oral, highly selective inhibitor of CDK 4 and 6. Inhibition of CDK4 and CDK6 acts to restore the tumour suppressor role of Rb and promote cell cycle arrest. Intact Rb is critical to the mechanism of CDK4/6 inhibition in cancer treatment, and CDKN2A loss with intact Rb mechanistically predicts sensitivity to CDK4/6 inhibitors. Preclinical data in bladder cancer cell lines have shown inactivation of RB1 confers resistance and inactivation of confers sensitivity to palbociclib.5 Several CDK4/6 inhibitors have recently been FDA-approved for metastatic, hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer in combination with hormone therapy with impressive prolongation of PFS observed in patients on these agents.6,7 Prior studies in UC have found striking similarities CDKN2A between ER-positive and luminal breast cancers and the luminal subtype of UC, including the discovery of estrogen receptor signaling and enrichment in luminal breast cancer-specific gene signatures and pathways. Given these similarities in gene expression, as well as the overall molecular landscape of UC and preclinical data, CDK4/6 inhibition is usually a promising treatment strategy for metastatic UC.8,9 We hypothesised that palbociclib would demonstrate clinical activity in patients with UC with Rb pathway alterations who had progressed after standard first-line chemotherapy. We therefore conducted this phase II trial of palbociclib in molecularly selected patients with platinum-refractory UC. Methods Patients Patients aged 18 years with metastatic histologically confirmed UC of the bladder, urethra, ureter, or renal pelvis who had progressed Tobramycin sulfate after prior platinum-based chemotherapy in the perioperative or metastatic setting were enrolled. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on archival tumour tissue and patients were deemed eligible if the tumours were positive for Rb and unfavorable for p16 as determined Tobramycin sulfate by the central study genitourinary pathologist (S.J.M.) in a CLIA-certified laboratory at the lead study site (University of North Carolina). Eligible patients had metastatic disease that was not amenable to curative surgery or radiation, including at least one measurable disease site. Perioperative chemotherapy Tobramycin sulfate must have been received within 1 year and no more than two prior cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens were allowed. Inclusion criteria included Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status??2, absolute neutrophil count??1500/L, hemoglobin??8?g/dL, platelets??75,000/L, total bilirubin??1.5 times the institutional upper limit of normal (ULN), AST/ALT??2.5 times ULN, serum creatinine??2.5 times ULN, life expectancy? ?3 months, and the ability to provide informed consent. Patients were ineligible if they had received a prior CDK4/6 inhibitor, had active brain metastases, were pregnant or breastfeeding, had uncontrolled systemic disease or uncontrolled contamination, or were unable to swallow oral medications. All patients provided written informed consent. Study design and treatment This was an open-label, single-arm multicentre (University of North Carolina, University of Michigan, Vanderbilt) phase II trial to evaluate the efficacy of palbociclib in patients with previously treated UC with p16 loss and intact RB by IHC. Patients received palbociclib 125?mg orally once daily with food on a 21 days on/7 days off schedule in 28-day cycles. Cycles were repeated until disease progression, death, or intolerability. All patients were monitored for toxicity by history, physical examination, and complete blood.
Palbociclib is an oral, selective inhibitor of CDK 4/6 that restores Rb function and promotes cell cycle arrest