Met-CCL5 was slightly more active than [44AANA47]-CCL5 at 0.5 mg/kg (Fig. mimicking in part the T-cell-mediated skin diseases such as psoriasis. In both models, the CCL5 antagonists showed therapeutic efficacy by reducing swelling by 50% as well as the reduction of soluble mediators in homogenates derived from challenged ears. These results demonstrate that blocking the receptor or Nitrofurantoin the ligand are both effective strategies to inhibit skin inflammation. Introduction Chemokines are a large family of small structurally homologous cytokines that stimulate leukocyte movement and regulate migration of leukocytes from your blood to the tissue. Since the discovery of the super-family of chemokines and their receptors, there has been a considerable effort to define their particular role in the orchestration of leukocyte trafficking. Using a variety of experimental methods, evidence has been provided that chemokines are essential mediators in the pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases and thus good candidates for therapeutic intervention strategies . Chemokines play a pivotal role in cellular recruitment through interactions with both cell surface G protein-coupled receptors and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) . Specific GAG binding sites of several chemokines have been delineated by mutagenesis, demonstrating that these sites are either unique, or partially overlap with receptor binding sites. For CCL5 the predominant binding site has been shown to be the BBXB motif in the 40s loop . The variant [44AANA47]-CCL5, in which the three basic residues in this motif are mutated to alanine, loses 80% of its capacity to bind to the GAG heparin in vitro as compared with wild-type CCL5 , . The recruitment of T cells and other leukocytes to the site of skin inflammation is usually a critical step for an efficient response to potentially dangerous signals as well as in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory skin diseases . A hallmark of autoimmune skin diseases is the over-expression of chemokines resulting in a detrimental local accumulation of pro-inflammatory immune cells . Cytokines and chemokines have a fundamental role in the regulation of leukocyte trafficking. The chemokine-chemokine receptor system is usually highly redundant and forms a complex network relevantly involved in the expression of inflammatory skin diseases, including irritant contact dermatitis, atopic Nitrofurantoin dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis and psoriasis. The pattern of chemokine expression shows overlapping features but also important differences in these diseases due to unique sources and types of pro-inflammatory signals involved in chemokine induction and the inherent capacity of resident skin cells to produce chemokines. Various studies have documented a strong chemokine expression in psoriatic skin lesions , , , . Specifically, CXCL8/IL-8 and the related CXCL2/Gro- are strongly up-regulated in psoriatic skin and are responsible for the typical intra-epidermal collection of Nitrofurantoin neutrophils. CCL2/MCP-1, and CCL5, attract predominantly monocytes as well as T cell subsets and CXCR3 ligands attract Th1 cells , , , . The underlying pathogenesis entails three predominant and interdependent biologic processes: inflammation, epidermal hyperproliferation, and altered differentiation with parakeratosis. The homeostasis of the normal epidermis depends on a balance of growth regulatory signals, which Bmpr2 Nitrofurantoin are altered in psoriatic epidermis . The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and the immunological response in irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and contact hypersensitivity (CHS) mouse models of the antagonistic CCL5 mutants. ICD is usually a pathological non-specific inflammatory skin condition, arising from the response of pro-inflammatory cytokines by keratinocytes in response to haptens, usually chemicals , . CHS is usually a T-cell-dependent model, mimicking T-cell mediated skin diseases, such as psoriasis. It has been previously shown.
Met-CCL5 was slightly more active than [44AANA47]-CCL5 at 0
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